The Tolstoy Tradition in Persian Literature: Family and Female Infidelity
This article is a comparative study of Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy and Love and Tears (1952) by Javad Fazel focusing on the theme of “family and woman” in the two works. The comparison of these works relies on their thematic similarity and the importance that both authors attach to the role of women in the family and society. In interpreting Tolstoy’s novel, the researchers rely on the ideas of Iranian society, which is more closely associated with traditional patriarchal views. The axiology of society says that a woman is the basis of the family, and family happiness depends on her behaviour, character, and awareness of her duties. When the issue of women’s emancipation in Russia and Iran started emerging, changes in the family structure caused many problems. The key issue in both novels is the infidelity of a married woman and the negative consequences of this act for the family and society. These personal problems threatened the institution of the family and in most cases led to the disintegration of the family. The questions of this study follow the problems of Tolstoy’s novel: what the woman’s role in maintaining the institution of the family is, what determines happiness in the family, and why some families fail. The authors conclude that in Tolstoy’s and Fazel’s points of view, their heroines’ feelings (Anna and Makhin) are not true love but passion. Both authors believe that family happiness depends on the woman’s observance of moral norms, but the norms themselves undergo dynamic changes. And a genuine feeling cannot simply be replaced by the rules of marital cohabitation.
Ameli Rezaee, M. (2012). Analysis of Historical Movement of Family Relationship in the Persian Novel from the Beginning until the 1950s. In Women Studies. Vol. 3 (1), pp. 117–142. (In Persian)
Aryanpour, Y. (1971). From Saba to Nima (The History of 150 Years Persian Modern Literature). 2 vols. Tehran, Zuwar. Vol. 1. 433 p. Vol. 2. 584 p. (In Persian)
Babaev, E. G. (1978). “Anna Karenina” L. N. Tolstogo [ Anna Karenina by L. N. Tolstoy]. Moscow, Khudozhestvennaya literature. 160 p.
Fazel, J. (1952). Love and Tears. Tehran, Kanoon Marafat. (In Persian)
Gromeka, M. S. (1884). Poslednee proizvedenie grafa L. N. Tolstogo [The Last Work of Count L. N. Tolstoy]. Moscow, Nobel’ Press. 239 p.
Karimi-Motahhar, J., Ashrafi, F. (2008). Izuchenie temy zhenshhiny v tvorchestve A. P. Chehova i M. Dzhamal’-Zade [The Study of the Theme of Women in Works by A. P. Chekhov and M. Jamal-Zade]. In Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji. No. 44, pp. 61–73.
MirAbedini, H. (2004). One Hundred Years of Fiction in Iran. 2 vols. Tehran, Cheshmeh. (In Persian)
Proskurina, T. D. (2012). Russkie pisateli XIX veka o sem’e [Russian Writers of the 19th Century about the Family]. Belgorod, Izdatel’sko-poligraficheskii kompleks Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo universiteta. 260 p.
Sergeeva, I. A. (2017). Vokrug romana L. N. Tolstogo “Semeinoe schast’e” [Around the Family Happiness Novel by L. N. Tolstoy]. In Aktual’nye problemy filologii. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii molodykh uchenykh. Yekaterinburg, 28 aprelya 2017 g. Yekaterinburg, S. n. Iss. 15, pp. 205–213.
Shifman, A. I. (1971). Lev Tolstoi i Vostok [Leo Tolstoy and the East]. Moscow, Nauka. 408 p.
Tolstaya, S. A. (1978). Dnevniki v 2 t. [Diaries. 2 Vols.]. Moscow, Khudozhestvennaya literatura. Vol. 1. 606 p.
Tolstoy, L. N. (1960–1965). Sobranie sochinenii v 20 t. [Collected Works. 20 vols.]. Moscow, Khudozhestvennaya literatura.
Turkmani Barandozi, V. (2017). The Image of “Family” in the Story of A. Mahmoud. In The Scorched Earth. Baharestan Sokhan. Winter. No. 14 (38), pp. 211–226. (In Persian)
Yahyapour, M. (1997). Poetika romana L. N. Tolstogo “Anna Karenina” (v aspekte religiozno-nravstvennykh vozzrenii pisatelya [Poetics of L. N. Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina (in the Aspect of the Religious and Moral Views of the Writer)]. Dis. … kand. filol. nauk. Moscow, S. n. 212 p.
Yahyapour, M., Karimi-Motahhar, J. (2006). “Dvoinik” F. M. Dostoevskogo i “Slepaya sova” S. Khedayata [The Double by F. M. Dostoevsky and The Blind Owl by S. Hedayat]. In Russkaya literatura. No. 3, pp. 185–189.