The Policy of Monolingualism and Multilingualism in Latvia and Kazakhstan
This article examines the evolution of language policy in Latvia and Kazakhstan, former republics of the Soviet Union. An analysis of the historical roots and development in the language policies of the two post-Soviet countries makes it possible to identify similarities and differences and advantages and disadvantages in the implementation processes. This article represents complex interdisciplinary research in the fields of linguistics, sociology, education, history, political science, and ethnology. The study is relevant as it considers the little-studied issue of language policy in former USSR republics and countries of the socialist camp. The research takes into account the fact that all countries are aware of the status of cultural soft power in the conditions of ongoing globalisation and a wave of ethnic nationalism where language is increasingly valued as a carrier of national culture. The entire global community, including Latvia and Kazakhstan, constantly adjusts and improves language policy in order to fulfill strategic goals. Latvia and Kazakhstan have similar historical memories and language situations, but they are carrying out different language policies. The government of Latvia has implemented a policy of monolingualism, while Kazakhstan has stuck to a bilingualism policy (although it is also attempting to realise a policy of trilingualism). The authors conclude that monolingualism fundamentally serves politics and occupies a weak position. In an era of globalisation, it is extremely difficult to establish a system of monolingualism in its strict sense; ultimately, it will be replaced by multilingualism.
BSЕ. Vol. 11. 648 p.
Isaev, M. I. (1979). Yazykovoe stroitel’stvo v SSSR [Linguistic Construction in the USSR]. Moscow, Nauka. 350 p.
Krivtsova, E. (2012). Novyi podkhod k yazykovoi politike [A New Approach to Language Policy]. In Gaponenko, A. V. (Ed.). Diskriminatsiya russkikh v stranakh Baltii: prichiny, formy, vozmozhnosti preodoleniya. Sbornik statei. Moscow, Riga, Moskovskoe byuro po pravam cheloveka, pp. 128–133.
Ma Lixin, (2014). Sravnitel’noe issledovanie yazykovoi politiki v Kitae i Kazakhstane [A Comparative Study of Language Policy in China and Kazakhstan]. In Sovremennaya filologiya. No. 12, pp. 152–154. –马立新. 中国与哈萨克斯坦语言政策的对比研究 // 现代语文. 2014. № 12. С. 152–154.
O gosudarstvennom yazyke% zakon Latviiskoi Respubliki ot 21.12.1999 [On the State Language: Law of the Republic of Latvia as of 21.12.1999]. (N. d.). In Latviiskaya respublika [website]. URL: http://latvia.news-city.info/docs/sistemsf/dok_iercib.htm (mode of access: 27.08.2019).
O yazykakh v Respublike Kazakhstan: zakon Respubliki Kazakhstan ot 11 iyulya 1997 g. № 151 [On Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan: The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan as of 11 July 1997. No. 151]. (N. d.). In Әdіlet: informatsionno-pravovaya sistema normativnykh pravovykh aktov Respubliki Kazakhstan [website]. URL: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/Z970000151_ (mode of access: 27.08.2019).
Spolsky, B. (2004). Language Policy. Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press. 250 p.
Tian Peng, (2015). Issledovanie yazykovoi politiki Evropeiskogo soyuza s tochki zreniya kollektivnoi identichnosti [A Study of the Language Policy of the European Union in Terms of Collective Identity]. Beijing, Peking Univ. Press. 212 p. – 田鹏. 集体认同视角下的欧盟语言政策研究. 北京：北京大学出版社，2015年，212页.
Yang Shichi, (2013). Issledovanie yazykovoi politiki v Kazakhstane [The Study of Language Policy in Kazakhstan]. Dis. … magistra filologii. Urumqi, S. n. 39 p. – 杨诗绮. 哈萨克斯坦语言政策研究. 新疆师范大学硕士学位论文, 2013年, 39页.