A Ticket to a New Life: The Integration of Special Settlers through Vocational Education (Tomsk in the 1950s)
Keywords:special settlers; social integration; western Siberia; secondary vocational and higher education; late Stalinism
This article raises the question whether secondary vocational and higher education was an accessible and effective tool for the social integration of special settlers between the late 1940s and early 1950s. In this article, the concept of ‘accessibility’ is considered through the analysis of both formal barriers, established by the regime at the legislative level, and informal ones formed by representatives of local authorities and management of educational institutions, whose actions hindered the realisation of the right to education for special settlers. The author examines the main characteristics of deportees who managed to overcome the difficulties and were able to enter secondary vocational or higher education institutions. She also analyses deportees’ nationalities, age, gender, and the origin of their parents, making general conclusions about the main stages of their biographies. The extent of special settlers’ success in social integration in educational institutions is estimated as a part of a study of the concept of ‘efficiency’. The key criterion for this is the analysis of four main parameters that reflect different sides of special settlers’ activities: academic performance, discipline, social and political life, and membership in the Komsomol or the party. Special attention is paid to the similarities and differences in the behaviour patterns of various special contingents (Germans, Kalmyks, members of the Ukrainian nationalists). In addition, the author analyses how discrimination in educational institutions affected the process of special settlers’ social integration and whether it existed at all. The article refers to documentary sources which have never been studied previously: name lists of special settlers, their personal characteristics, ordinances of universities, and personal files drawn up on their admission to educational institutions. To a lesser extent, the study also uses narrative sources.
Arkhiv TGPU [Archive of Tomsk State Pedagogical University]. Stock 566. List 2. Dos. 2083, 2756, 5036, 10632, 16120.
Arkhiv TGU [Archive of Tomsk State University]. Stock 815. List 35. Dos. 120; List 58. Dos. 177; List 59. Dos. 34; List 76. Dos. 15.
Arkhiv TPU [Archive of Tomsk Polytechnic University]. List 7. Dos. 507, 753, 3138, 2468; List 11. Dos. 316; List 12. Dos. 27, 296, 664, 1297.
El’buzdukaeva, T. U., Yandarova, S. Kh. (2016). Politicheskii aspekt sotsializatsii chechentsev i ingushei v oblasti obrazovaniya i kul’tury v mestakh spetsposeleniya v 40–50-e gg. XX v. [Political Socialisation of Chechens and Ingushes in the Educational and Cultural Fields in Special Settlements between the 1940s and 1950s]. In Vestnik Vladikavkazskogo nauchnogo tsentra. No. 4, pp. 24–29.
GAKO [State Archive of Kemerovo Region]. Stock. R‑75. List 7. Dos. 93.
GARF [State Archive of the Russian Federation]. Stock R‑9408. List 1. Dos. 1; Stock R‑9479. List 1. Dos. 436.
GATO [State Archive of Tomsk Region]. Stock 561. List 2. Dos. 95, 96, 104, 105, 112, 116, 117, 118; Stock 1129. List 2. Dos. 310, 677; List 5. Dos. 8, 25, 84, 267, 268, 677.
Guchinova, E.-B. M. (2005). Pomnit’ nel’zya zabyt’. Antropologiya deportatsionnoi travmy kalmykov [It is Impossible to Forget, Remember. An Anthropology of the Deportation Trauma of the Kalmyks]. Stuttgart, Ibidem. 282 p.
Ignatova, N. M. (2009). Spetspereselentsy v respublike Komi v 1930–1950-e gg. [Special Settlers in the Komi Republic, 1930s‑1950s]. Syktyvkar, Institut yazyka, literatury i istorii Komi nauchnogo tsentra Ural’skogo otdeleniya RAN. 192 p.
Ivanov, A. S. (2016). Obrazovatel’naya sreda spetsposelenii Yugry 1930–1950-kh gg.: formirovanie i evolyutsiya obrazovatel’nogo prostranstva [Educational Environment of Yugra Special Settlements in the 1930s–1950s: Formation and Evolution of Educational Space]. In Manuskript. No. 12, pp. 75–79.
Krasil’nikov, S. A., Sarnova, V. V. (2004). Sokhranenie natsional’noi kul’tury i etnichnosti spetspereselentsami v Sibiri v 1930–1940-e gody [Preservation of National Culture and Identity by Displaced Persons in Siberia in the 1930s–1940s]. In Natsional’nokul’turnaya politika v Sibirskom regione v XX v. Novosibirsk, Novosibirskii gosudarstvennyi universitet, pp. 197–217.
Moshkin, V. V. (1992). Krest’yanskaya ssylka na Ob’-Irtyshskii Sever (1930–1933 gg.) [Deportation of Peasants to the Ob-Irtysh North (1930–1933)]. Dis. … kandidata istoricheskikh nauk. Nizhnevartovsk, S. n. 208 p.
Parsons, T. (1991). The Social System. L., Routledge. 575 p.
Rabinovich, R. (2015). Skvoz’ tri stroya [Through Three Regimes]. Moscow, Muza tvorchestva. 520 p.
Resheniya partii i pravitel’stva po khozyaistvennym voprosam. 1917–1967 v 5 t. [Decisions of the Party and Government on Economic Issues. 1917–1967. 5 Vols.]. (1967). Moscow, Politizdat. Vol. 2, 1929–1940. 558 p.
RGAE [Russian State Archive of the Economy]. Stock 1562. List 41. Dos. 113.
Sobranie postanovlenii i rasporyazhenii pravitel’stva SSSR (№ 1–32) [Collection of the Resolutions and Orders of the Government of the USSR (No. 1–32)]. (1940). Moscow, Upravlenie delami Soveta Ministrov SSSR. 1078 p.
TsDNI TO [Documentation Centre of the Modern History of Tomsk Region]. Stock 607. List 1. Dos. 243, 948, 949, 1648, 1649, 1707.
Zagorodnyuk, N. I. (1992). Shkoly dlya spetspereselentsev (30–50 gg.) [Schools for Special Settlers (1930–1950)]. In Istoricheskii opyt obrazovaniya Tyumenskogo kraya. Materialy oblastnoi nauchnoi konferentsii. Tyumen, S. n., pp. 78–80.