The Evacuation of the Customs Administration from the Kingdom of Poland to Russia in 1914
The customs administration in the Kingdom of Poland operated mainly in the borderlands. After the Triple Alliance was formed, it became obvious that both the German Empire and Austria-Hungary could be potential adversaries of Russia. The state administration in the Kingdom of Poland would be the most vulnerable to possible military conflicts. In the early 1890s, initial attempts were made to design evacuation protocols. The works continued until 1913 when they reached completion. In accordance with these guidelines, the customs administration was evacuated between July and August 1914. Customs offices and their personnel, along with their families, were transported further inland where they were supposed to await the positive outcome of the war, which, in contrast to expectations, never occurred. The way in which the evacuation of institutions managing the empire’s western land border was planned and carried out raises several specific and more general questions. The authors focus on the approach to evacuation emphasizing its deliberate character, privileges of the hierarchy of officials, approach to archives, as well as the implementation itself and its effectiveness. Further on, the issue of planning the return of the Russian administration to these territories arose, which could be perceived as real belief in victory. The reconstruction of the subject of research is developed with reference to numerous archival sources from the archives of Poland, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Russia, as well as printed sources: legislation, official departmental publications, and press articles. The work uses or refers to all the literature on the subject that deserves attention. As a result of the analysis of the planning, evacuation, and operation processes in Russia of the examined structures, it can be concluded that the plans were implemented quite accurately and effectively. The authors draw this conclusion after many years of research on the operation and evacuation of other Russian offices of the Kingdom of Poland. These evacuation customs offices operated in a limited number, waiting for the end of the war, but ironically, while escaping from an external enemy, they fell into the hands of an internal one as they served the Bolsheviks in creating their “instruments of power”.
APL [State Archive in Lublin]. Janowski Zarząd Powiatowy. Dos. 5.
Bokov, K. I. (2012). Struktura tamozhennykh organov Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XIX – nachale XX vekov [The Structure of the Customs Authorities of Russia in the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Centuries]. In Istoriya gosudarstva i prava. No. 22, pp. 27–34.
Bokov, K. I. (2014). Stanovlenie i razvitie tamozhennogo dela i tamozhennogo zakonodatel’stva v Rossii v XIX – nachale XX veka [Formation and Development of Customs and Customs Legislation in Russia in the 19th – Early 20th Centuries]. Moscow, Prospekt. 170 p.
Bubnov, R. S. (2019). Departament tamozhennykh sborov Ministerstva finansov v sisteme gosudarstvennoi vlasti (1864–1914) [Department of Customs Duties of the Ministry of Finance in the System of State Power (1864–1914)]. In Voprosy natsional’nykh i federativnykh otnoshenii. No. 7 (52), pp. 966–972.
Czas. (1914). No. 309.
DAKhO [State Archive of Khmelnytskiy Region]. Stock 309. List 1. Dos. 1233; Stock 378. List 1. Dos. 34.
DAOO [State Archive of Odessa Region]. Stock 201. List 2. Dos. 61; Stock 222. List 1. Dos. 12.
Dobroński, A. (1976). Dyslokacja wojsk rosyjskich w Królestwie Polskim przed i wojną światową. In Studia i Materiały do Historii Wojskowości. Vol. 20, pp. 241–284.
GARF [State Archive of the Russian Federation]. Stock 110. List 4. Dos. 3617; Stock 1263. List 1. Dos. 1, 14, 59, 64; Stock 1459. List 1. Dos. 7, 12, 14–17, 28, 108, 203, 241, 291; Stock 1777. List 1. Dos. 1, 5, 38, 74, 83, 94, 99, 107, 112, 119; Stock R-1041. List 1. Dos. 852, 854.
Gazeta Toruńska. (1914). No. 173–175.
Górak, A. (2018). Gosudarstvo i mobilizatsiya obshchestvennykh sil: bor’ba s chumoi rogatogo skota v Rossiiskoi imperii v XIX – nachale XX v. [The State and the Mobilisation of Social Forces: The Fight against Rinderpest in the Russian Empire in the 19th – Early 20th Centuries]. In Ural’skii istoricheskii vestnik. No. 4 (61), pp. 30–37. DOI 10.30759/1728-9718-2018-4(61)-30-37.
Górak, A. (2021). Zabytaya rossiiskaya administratsiya – Pravlenie rossiiskikh tamozhennykh i torgovykh del v Varshave 1818–1822 [Forgotten Russian Administration – Board of Russian Customs and Trade Affairs in Warsaw 1818–1822]. In Res Historica. No. 51, pp. 339–371. DOI 10.17951/rh.2021.51.339-371.
Górak, A., Latawiec, K. (2015). Rosyjska administracja specjalna w Królestwie Polskim 1839–1918 [Russian Special Administration in the Kingdom of Poland 1839–1918]. Lublin, Wydawnictwo UMCS. 212 s.
Kuryer Śląski. (1914). No. 171.
Latawiec, K. (2002). Ewakuacja organów administracji ogólnej wyższego i niższego szczebla guberni lubelskiej w sierpniu 1914 roku. In Radzyński Rocznik Humanistyczny. Vol. 2, pp. 43–55.
Latawiec, K., Górak, A., Legieć, J., Bogdanow, S. (2016). Naczelnicy organów rosyjskiej administracji specjalnej w Królestwie Polskim w latach 1839–1918. Słownik biograficzny. Vol. 2. Ministerstwo Finansów. Lublin, Wydawnictwo UMCS. 382 s.
Lichnyi sostav Departamenta tamozhennykh sborov i uchrezhdenii tamozhennogo vedomstva. Po svedeniyam do 9 yanvarya 1913 goda [Personnel of the Department of Customs Duties and Institutions of the Customs Department. According to Information until January 9, 1913]. (1913). St Petersburg, S. n. XII, 214 p.
LVIA [Lithuanian State Historical Archive]. Stock 1051. List 1. Dos. 1, 5.
LVVA [Latvian State Historical Archive]. Stock 545. List 2. Dos. 26b, 27; Stock. 4935. List 3, Dos. 28, 31, 57.
Osobye zhurnaly Soveta ministrov Rossiiskoi imperii 1909–1917 gg. 1914 god [Special Journals of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire 1909–1917. 1914]. (2006). Moscow, ROSSPEN. 698 p.
RGIA [Russian State Historical Archive]. Stock 128. List 1. Dos. 1105; Stock 133. List 1. Dos. 208; Stock 1282. List 1. Dos. 1007.
Sobranie uzakonenii i rasporyazhenii pravitel’stva [Collection of Laws and Orders of the Government]. (1912). No. 103. Art. 865.
Spisok adresov evakuirovannykh pravitel’stvennykh i obshchestvennykh uchrezhdenii i dolzhnostnykh lits [List of Addresses of Evacuated Government and Public Institutions and Officials]. (1916). Moscow, S. n. 118 p.
Spravochnik ob evakuirovannykh pravitel’stvennykh, obshchestvennykh i chastnykh uchrezhdeniyakh i zavedeniyakh i o dolzhnostnykh litsakh [Directory of Evacuated Government, Public and Private Institutions and Institutions and Officials]. (1916). Petrograd, S. n. 137 p.
Ustawa celna dla Królestwa Polskiego. (1851). Warszawa, S. n. 643 p.
Wiedeński Kuryer Polski. (1915). No. 326.