Competition between Russian and Ukrainian Nationalism before and during World War I – the History and Policy of Memory
This article analyses the factors and actors that played a decisive role in the competition between the all-Russian and Ukrainian projects of national development between 1906 and 1926. The study concerns the territories quite often referred to as the Western outskirts of the Russian state. It was there that the Russian state faced the first and most serious challenge from the side of Polish nationalism. It was in that region that they started using nationalist tools. This resulted in the emergence of Russian nationalism as an ideological movement, which was to a considerable extent a reaction to the problems of the periphery of the country. It was in this crucible of the Russian-Polish and later Russian-German competition that the Ukrainian, Lithuanian, and Belarusian national projects started to form. The article consists of two parts. The first describes the situation in Ukraine before the war with reference to a few significant sources, while the second focuses on World War I. The article aims to consider a number of issues that have not been studied previously, especially in contemporary national historical narratives.