Were muscovy and castile the first fiscal-military states?


  • Chester Dunning




John Brewer‘s model; 16th century; kingdom of Castile; Muscovy


In this article Chester Dunning examines recent scholarship about John Brewer‘s model of the development of the early modern „fiscal-military“ state and the possibility of applying Brewer‘s model to sixteenth-century Russia and Castile (Spain). He concludes that Muscovy and Castile were probably the first “fiscal-military” states.


Billington J. The Icon and the Axe: An Interpretive History of Russian Culture. New York : Knopf, 1966. 880 p.

Bogatyrev S. Localism and Integration of Muscovy // Russia Takes Shape: Patterns of Integration from the Middle Ages to the Present / ed. S. Bogatyrev. Helsinki : Academy of Sciences and Finnish Letters, 2004. P. 59–127.

Brewer J. The Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688–1783. New York : Knopf, 1989. 289 p.

Brewer J., Hellmuth E. Rethinking Leviathan: The Eighteenth-Century State in Britain and Germany / ed. J. Brewer, E. Hellmuth. New York : Oxford Univ. Press, 1999. 412 p.

Cracraft J. The Petrine Revolution in Russian Culture. Cambridge, MA : Belknap Press, 2004. 576 p.

Davies B. Empire and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia’s Turkish Wars in the Eighteenth Century. London : Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011. 375 p.

Davies B. State Power and Community in Early Modern Russia: The Case of Kozlov, 1635–1649. London : Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 308 p.

Davies B. Village into Garrison: The Militarized Peasant Communities of Southern Muscovy // The Russian Review 51. No. 3. 1992. P. 481–501.

Davies B. Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1500–1800. Leiden : Brill, 2012. 364 p.

Downing B. The Military Revolution and Political Change. Princeton : Princeton Univ. Press, 1992. 308 p.

Dunning Ch. The Preconditions of Modern Russia’s First Civil War // Russian History 25. Nos. 1–2. 1998. P. 119–131.

Dunning Ch. The Legacy of Russia’s First Civil War and the Time of Troubles // Forschungen zur osteuropäischen Geschichte 56. 1999. P. 132–155.

Dunning Ch., S. L. Russia’s First Civil War: The Time of Troubles and the Founding of the Romanov Dynasty. University Park : Penn State Press, 2001. 657 p.

Dunning Ch., Smith N. S. Moving beyond Absolutism: Was Early Modern Russia a ‘Fiscal-Military’ State? // Russian History 33. No. 1. 2006. P. 19–43.

Edling M. M. A Revolution in Favor of Government: Origins of the U. S. Constitution and the Making of the American State. New York : Oxford Univ. Press, 2003. 336 p.

Ertman Th. Birth of Leviathan: Building States and Regimes in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997. 380 p.

Frost R. I. The Northern Wars: War, State, and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558–1721. Harlow, England : Longman, 2000. 416 p.

Gelabert J. Castile, 1504–1808 // The Rise of the Fiscal-State in Europe, c.1200–1815 / ed. B. Richard. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press, 1999. P. 201–238.

Glete J. War and the state in early modern Europe: Spain, the Dutch Republic and Sweden as Fiscal-Military States. London : Routledge, 2001. 277 p.

Hartley J. Russia as a Fiscal-Military State, 1689–1825 The Fiscal-Military State in Eighteenth-Century Europe: Essays in Honor of P. G. M. Dickson / ed. C. Storrs. Burlington. VT : Ashgate, 2009. P. 125–146.

Henshall N. The Myth of Absolutism: Change & Continuity in Early Modern European Monarchy. London : Longman,1992. 245 p. [Khenshell N. Mif absoliutizma: Peremeny i preemstvennost’ v razvitii zapadno-evropeiskikh monarkhii rannego Novogo vremeni. SPb. : Aleteiia, 2003. 271 s.]

Laredo Q. M. A. Castile in the Middle Ages. The Rise of the Fiscal-State in Europe, c.1200–1815 / ed. R. Bonney. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press, 1999. P. 177–196.

Monad P. K. The Power of Kings: Monarchy and Religion in Europe, 1589–1715. New Haven : Yale Univ. Press, 1999. 422 p.

Poe M. The Consequences of the Military Revolution in Muscovy in Comparative Perspective // Comparative Studies in Society and History 38. No. 4. 1996. P. 608–618.

Poe M. The Military Revolution, Administrative Development, and Cultural Change in Early Modern Russia // Journal of Early Modern History 2. No. 3. 1998. P. 247–273.

Rogers C. The Military Revolution Debate: Readings on the Military Transformation of Early Modern Europe / ed. C. Rogers. Westview Press, 1995. 400 p.

Ruiz T. F. From Heaven to Earth: The Reordering of Castilian Society, 1150–1350.

Princeton : Princeton Univ. Press, 2004. 240 p.

Sashalmi E. God is High Up. The Tsar is Far Away. The Nature of Polity and Political Culture in Seventeenth-Century Russia: A Comparative View Empowering Interactions. Political Cultures and the Emergence of the State in Europe, 1300–1900 / eds. W. Blockmans, A. Holenstein, I. athieu. Burlington, VT : Ashgate, 2009a. P. 131–147.

Sashalmi E. Russia as a Fiscal-Military and a Composite-Dynastic State, 1654–1725 // Gosudarstvo i natsiia v Rossii i Tsentralno-vostochnoi Evrope [State and Nation in Russia and Central East Europe] / ed. G. Szvak. Budapest : Russica Pannonica, 2009b.

Simms B. Reform in Britain and Prussia, 1797–1815: (Confessional) Fiscal-Military State and Military-Agrarian Complex // Reform in Great Britain and Germany 1750–1850 / eds. T. C. W. Blanning, P. Wende. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press. 1999. P. 79–100.

Swann J. The State and political culture // Old Regime France: 1648–1788 / ed. W. Doyle.

Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press, 2001. P. 151–153.

Tengenu T. The Evolution of Ethiopian Absolutism: The Genesis and the Making of the Fiscal-Military State, 1696–1913. Uppsala : Uppsala Univ. Press, 1998. 286 p.

Thompson A. A. Money, Money, and Yet More Money: Finance, Fiscal State and the Military Revolution // The Military Revolution Debate: Readings on the Military Transformation of Early Modern Europe / ed. C. Rogers. Westview Press, 1995. P. 273–298.

Witzenrath C. Cossacks and the Russian Empire, 1598–1725: Manipulation, Rebellion and Expansion into Siberia. London : Routledge, 2007. 282 p.

Yanov A. The Origins of Autocracy: Ivan the Terrible in Russian History. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press, 1981. 339 p.

How to Cite

Dunning, C. (2014). Were muscovy and castile the first fiscal-military states?. Quaestio Rossica, (1), 191–197. https://doi.org/10.15826/qr.2014.1.031