Quaestio Rossica https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr <p><strong><em>Quaestio Rossica</em> is a peer-reviewed academic journal focusing on the study of Russia’s history, philology, and culture. The Journal aims to introduce new research approaches in the sphere of the Humanities and previously unknown sources, actualising traditional methods and creating new research concepts in the sphere of Russian studies. Except for academic articles, the Journal publishes reviews, historical surveys, discussions, and accounts of the past of the Humanities as a field.</strong> </p> <p>The Journal is published quarterly. It accepts articles in Russian, English, German, and French. All articles are accompanied by detailed abstracts in English and in Russian. </p> <p><em>Quaestio Rossica</em> observes international standards; materials published in the Journal are indexed in the Russian Science Citation Index (impact factor 0.19), AHCI (Arts and Humanities Citation Index) – the main index of Web of Science, and Scopus (Quartiles 1 and 2) as well as other important international databases. </p> <p>A full-text version of the Journal is available for free on the <a href="https://qr.urfu.ru/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a> of the Journal, the <a href="http://elar.urfu.ru/handle/10995/23116" target="_blank" rel="noopener">electronic archive of Ural Federal University</a>, and on the platform of the <a href="https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=50537" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Russian Universal Scientific Electronic Library</a> (RSCI).&nbsp;</p> Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin en-US Quaestio Rossica 2311-911X Mediaeval Russia: Characters in History and Everyday Life https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.337 <p>___</p> Irina Dergacheva Vladimir Arakcheev ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 935–940 935–940 10.15826/qr.2018.4.337 Novgorod Tartars in the Time of Troubles and after: Social Group Reconsolidation https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.338 <p>The regional diversity of Muscovy, which was established in the second half of the 16th century, and attempts to describe it with the help of the emerging language of Muscovite bureaucracy was a way to construct the ranks that were later to become a specific feature of Muscovite society. The Novgorod lands were the first place where this language was created. Throughout the 16th century, the structure of ranks in the Novgorod lands became more diverse and complex. This article studies the restoration of a specific group of servicemen of Veliky Novgorod following the Time of Troubles and 1617, i. e. Muslim Tartars and the newly-baptised. Due to an immense decrease in the number of representatives of this and other categories of servicemen, the bureaucratic structure simplified. Very few Novgorod Muslim Tartars and newly-baptised kept their estates. Although different records kept referring to this special rank, it was mentioned together with all the other categories of servicemen in the same documents. Large numbers of the descendants of Novgorod Tartars changed their status and started receiving salaries on a regular basis, which made their status comparable to that of streltsy and artillerymen. For the purposes of comparison, the author refers to examples connected with former representatives of the group who, following the Treaty of Stolbovo, became subjects of the Kingdom of Sweden. Initially, i. e. until 1630, the Swedish administration kept references to this rank in its documents but as of the second generation of former Muscovite servicemen, their descendants were referred to as Bayors (Swedish baijorer), and almost all of them converted to Lutheranism. References to the Tartar descent of landowners can only be found in registries until the mid-17th century. The article considers the correspondence of the bureaucratic ranks to 17th-century social groups. In this context, it seems appropriate to consider Novgorod Tatars, as they were a group which was special both from the point of view of language and religion.</p> Adrian Selin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 943–954 943–954 10.15826/qr.2018.4.338 Destinies of Old Family Lands in the First Half of the 17th Century https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.339 <p>This article considers the peculiarities of the old family lands of the boyar elite in the first half of the 17th century. Despite the fact that many princes and boyars owned vast old family lands (the princes Shuysky, Romodanovsky, Pozharsky, Lykov, Repnin, Troekurov, Sitsky, Prozorovsky, and Bakhteyarov-Rostovsky, as well as the most prominent representatives of the old Moscow untitled boyars, such as the Romanovs, Sheremetevs, Morozovs, and Saltykovs), the history of these properties is not as transparent as many researchers believe. The author demonstrates that in the 17th century, most princes and boyars continued to own these legacies not only due to the principle of natural inheritance but also because they came into possession of lands they had lost in the 16th century during the Time of Troubles and the reign of Mikhail Fyodorovich. These returns were not a general rule and did not apply to most of the service class. As a rule, old family lands were only returned to the most prominent boyars and courtiers as special grants for their services or because of their position at court. Among the people granted old family lands which they had lost under Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich in the 16th century (including the lands of distant relations), there were royal family members, favourites and the most prominent boyars (Ivan Nikitich Romanov, Fyodor Ivanovich Sheremetev, Prince Boris Mikhailovich Lykov, Prince Boris Alexandrovich Repnin, Prince Dmitry Mikhailovich Pozharsky, Prince Ivan Ivanovich Shuysky, the Romodanovsky, Prozorovsky, Sitsky, Troekurov, and Bakhteyarov-Rostovsky princes, and the old Moscow untitled boyars Morozov, Saltykov, Golovin, and Dolmatov-Karpov). Most of the other noble families either completely lost or owned insignificant remnants of their old family lands. Thus, even possession of such lands in the 17th century became a reward, which led to the increased dependence of the boyar elite on the monarchy.</p> Andrei Pavlov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 955–971 955–971 10.15826/qr.2018.4.339 The Phenomenon of “Razboy” in Russia in the Early 17th Century: On the Typology of Rebel Movements https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.340 <p>This article considers the robbers’ (Rus. razboy) movement, a social phenomenon of the early seventeenth century that has not been studied thoroughly. The author conducts a critical review of the existing historiography, providing a comprehensive analysis of the facts concerning the government’s reaction to the rebel movement, the dynamics of enslavement in the lands of Novgorod, and the spread of famine in Russia between 1601 and 1603. The author puts forward a hypothesis explaining the reasons why military servitors left the suites of boyars and nobles. The heirs of a deceased master did not hire their predecessor’s military servitors, nor did they agree to provide them with serfs corresponding to their status (amounting to 15 roubles). The article provides facts testifying to the low prices for bread in the patrimonies of the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, proving that the famine was by no means nationwide. The author proposes a new explanation for why expeditions were dispatched to fight brigands in the late autumn of 1602 or in the winter of 1602–1603. In late autumn, the robbers left the forest by road, as they could no longer count on the abundance of vegetation that protected them from being noticed in summer: they stayed in their accomplices’ houses, waiting for the frost to end and haggling over their trophies. The author concludes that the robbers formed a network, which meant the inclusion of peasants and townspeople into the insurgent bands. Additionally, the author compares the robbers’ movement and the activity of peasant militias in 1609, emphasising the fundamental difference between the two phenomena. Relying on renegade peasants and landless labourers (perhaps the poorest) from villages and suburbs, the robbers’ movement of 1602–1603 opposed communities of feudal tenants owing obligations in labour and in kind. The actions of peasant militias in 1609 were based on a key social institution of the pre-industrial era, i. e. the community, and were driven by the ideology of royal pretendership.</p> Vladimir Arakcheev ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 972–983 972–983 10.15826/qr.2018.4.340 The “Years of Hardship” of the First Russian Manufacturer Andrei Denisovich Vinius https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.341 <p>This article considers an unstudied episode in the life of Andrei Denisovich Vinius, a Dutch entrepreneur and founder of the first metallurgical plant in Russia. Previously, researchers had no information about Vinius’ business activities connected with the establishment and management of the metallurgical plant. The sources available to researchers did not prove the hypothesis that the Dutch merchant continued his trading activity. Such data can be found among Prikaz records reflecting results of trials. Andrei Vinius was a defendant in these cases. Documents found by the authors in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts help conclude that Vinius did not stop his trading activity even when his major efforts were aimed at founding a metallurgical plant near Tula. However, the period between 1630 and 1640 was a hard time for the Dutch entrepreneur. It was characterised by a tense situation in the international arena, where his plant had to compete with firearms imported from Europe. In the late 1630s and early 1640s, Muscovy was facing a possible conflict with the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate. As a result, the country had to quickly fortify its borders, build new protective walls, and increase the garrisons in the towns of the steppe zones, which required the mass production of small arms. Due to the peculiarities of the Russian domestic resource market, Vinius’ arms were nearly a third more expensive compared to small arms imported from Sweden and Germany. Vinius’ trading activity led to losses and conflicts with the Russian law. Trying to make up for the losses incurred, he started dealing in tobacco, which was prohibited in Russia. All these factors gradually made Vinius stop his commercial activity and join the Russian civil service. His legal conflict with Nazary Chisty, a clerk of the State Prikaz, and their later reconciliation also allowed Vinius to establish useful connections in government circles.</p> Dmitry Liseitsev Stepan Shamin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 984–994 984–994 10.15826/qr.2018.4.341 Athos: Manuscript Collections of the Russian State Library https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.342 <p>This article analyses documentary information on Athos kept in the Russian State Library, starting with the earliest times. The author traces the times at which the said records appeared and analyses the legend of the “drawing of lots” (whereby the Virgin Mary was dispatched to proselytise on Mount Athos after drawing lots with the apostles), whose dissemination relates to St Maximus and St Stephen of Athos and which is an integral part of the history of Athos. According to the author, heightened interest in Athos and its history was rooted in the self-perception of the nation at the time when Russia was forming as a centralised state, which coincided with Byzantium’s loss of its function of a “restraining” power. The self-perception as a spiritual successor brought about interest in Athos as the capital of monasticism, which was conditioned by the sacralisation of its sacred objects and their transfer to Russia in the 17th century. The legend of the drawing of the lots, connected in Russia with Sts Maximus and St Stephen, was later to reappear in The Paradise of Mind, a work published between 1658 and 1659 by the Iversky publishing house of Valday, in the third edition of Segius Shelonin’s Azbukovnik. As of the 1650s, the themes of paradise, drawing lots, and flight into desert became the dominating themes of narratives in the creative work of writers of the Nikon era, particularly those of Solovetsky Archimandrite Sergii Shelonin. In the 1690s, the same theme appears in the short narrative of the Chudov Monastery by Hierodeacon Damaskin and the Greek pilgrim John Komnenos Molivd. In the 18th century, Athos was discussed in the notes of the Russian explorer Vasily Grigorovich-Barsky. All these facts prove that throughout the centuries, Athos attracted a lot of close attention, which was a result of the sacralisation of its space and artefacts.</p> Tatiana Isachenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 995–1014 995–1014 10.15826/qr.2018.4.342 The Teaching about Concord and Reconciliation in the Encyclical of Metropolitan Daniil of Moscow https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.343 <p>The Encyclical of Metropolitan Daniil (<em>On Reconciliation, Unity, Concord, Love, the Preservation of Orthodoxy and Religious Instruction and Guidance for All of Us</em>), written in 1539, represents a farewell instruction from the hierarch. Following the deaths of Vasily III and Elena Glinskaya, the historical circumstances in Moscow did not favour Daniil, and, as a result, he had to leave his throne. The&nbsp;<em>Encyclical</em> has not been studied thoroughly or published previously. The article aims to uncover the history behind the text and the development of the author’s ideas. Using textological, structural, typological, historical, and literary methods of analysis, the article singles out two versions of the work in question and describes them, focusing on the author’s intentions. Additionally, the article contains a critical assessment of the conclusions made by<br>V. Zhmakin in 1881. The <em>Encyclical</em> can be found in three handwritten collections of the mid-16th century, all related to the Iosifo-Volokolamsky Monastery. The copies kept in the Russian State Library are the initial short and extended versions of the instruction. The extended version contains insets clarifying the message of the author and providing a continuation of the text. The plot of the <em>Encyclical</em> contains two themes: reconciliation in society and preservation of the Orthodox faith. In the short version, their roles are unequal. The teaching about reconciliation and concord is addressed to laymen, the clergy, and all God’s children. The structure of the model of reconciliation and concord is based on the Gospel and the Epistles. Daniil maintains that salvation is to be found in humility and agape, which is the root of all good causes. Agape is the leitmotif of Daniil’s theology. The short version of the <em>Encyclical</em> only contains one sentence about the observation of divine law (the other theme of the instruction). In the extended version, the author develops the idea connected with the protection of faith from evil teachings and hostile people. He encourages the reader to fight with them and maintains that in this case, there can be no reconciliation. The final part of the work in the extended version is a <em>nakaz</em> (pastor’s instruction) as a type of sermon. The structural connection of the <em>Encyclical</em> with Daniil’s Sobornik revealed in the article allow the author to describe the principles of the ecclesiastical writer and prepare his work for academic publication.</p> Ludmila Zhurova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1015–1030 1015–1030 10.15826/qr.2018.4.343 Strictly Regulated and Measured: Meals at the Iosifo- Volokolamsky Monastery, c. 1580 https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.344 <p>The main source of this study is the revenue book (Rus. kormovaya kniga) of the Iosifo-Volokolamsky Monastery for 1581–1582. It combines information about significant contributions and kormy (meals) commemorating the investors with instructions about food and drinks to be served throughout the year. Depending on the weekly and annual cycles, the monastery menu changed daily. To prevent an investor’s commemoration day and a fast day from overlapping, the kormy were moved to non-fast days. The revenue book allows the author to accurately reconstruct the monastery menu. The quality of the food and the number of dishes depended on the day and the occasion. In addition, the portions of food and drinks were normally determined beforehand. The lay workers of the monastery received smaller portions, but other than that there were no differences: everyone ate the same food. The left overs were distributed among paupers in front of the gate of the monastery or sent to nearby monasteries. In the revenue book, the author finds instructions regarding the seating during the meal, the order in which everyone was supposed to eat (the first and second rounds of serving), and the days on which the tables were to be covered with tablecloths. The revenue book demonstrates the way in which the rules of Orthodox monasticism, whose traditions formed in the Mediterranean space, were transferred to a different climate zone and adapted to it. Additionally, the author points out that the monastery menu of the late 16th century bears some features of contemporary Russian cuisine.</p> Ludwig Steindorff ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1031–1052 1031–1052 10.15826/qr.2018.4.344 The Feast Days of Slavic Saints as Part of the Stishnoy Prologue from the 15th – 17th Centuries https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.345 <p>This article studies the structure of the <em>Stishnoy Prologue</em> (<em>Synaxarion</em>), an artefact of Old Church Slavonic writing containing brief lives of the saints, hagiography, and moralising stories arranged in accordance with the calendar. There are many unsolved issues concerning the history of the translation of the <em>Stishnoy Prologue</em> into the Slavic language and its existence in Russia between the 14th and 17th centuries. These issues have to do with the sources, the peculiarities of its copies, and the role played by the hagiographies and moralising texts in different manuscripts. The author aims to clarify the structure of the <em>Stishnoy Prologue</em> and the description of Slavic saints’ lives corresponding to their anniversaries. In order to draw a typological classification of the 40 copies of the spring and summer parts of the <em>Stishnoy Prologue</em> from the 15th–17th centuries in their Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian versions, the author uses the linguo-textological method, dividing all the manuscripts into five groups. As a result of the study, the author singles out nine hagiographies devoted to Slavic saints and supposedly written by Slavic authors. Three saints’ lives describing the earliest events in Christian history (early 4th century AD, 351, 812) can be found in all the copies of the document, which means these texts were part of the original Slavic translation of the <em>Stishnoy Prologue</em> from Greek. The commemoration of Holy <em>Prince</em> Wenceslaus (<em>Vyacheslav</em>) of the Czechs can be found in all the Russian copies, while the life of Methodius, Bishop of Moravia (characterising the Khutyn group of manuscripts), was included into the <em>Stishnoy Prologue</em> after its appearance in Russia in the 14th century. Additionally, the author discovered descriptions of the lives of the most venerated Bulgarian St John of Rila and St Prince Lazar of Serbia in only two out of the fifteen South Slavic manuscripts, both dating back to the 17th century. This testifies to the fact that the South Slavs demonstrated a stronger adherence to tradition when copying texts. The author also points out that the life of the Bulgarian St George the New can only be found in the 16th-century copy of the <em>Stishnoy Prologue</em>. It also contains a number of Russian and Slavic saints canonised by the Russian Orthodox Church after the Councils of 1547 and 1549. Finally, the author concludes that the presence of the lives of Slavic saints in the <em>Stishnoy Prologue</em> is an important typological feature to be taken into account when characterising the existing manuscripts.</p> Olga Shcheglova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1053–1062 1053–1062 10.15826/qr.2018.4.345 Chronicle-writing in the Lower Volga Region between the 18th and 19th Centuries as a Sociocultural Phenomenon https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.346 <p>This article considers works on the history of towns in the Lower Volga region written by the locals between the 18th and 19th centuries and referred to as chronicles in the historiography. The authors aim to trace the history behind the creation of the said works, characterise their genre features, and determine their role in the formation of historical consciousness in the region’s population. The research relies on the principles of historicism and objectivity, using textual, historical-genetic, and historical-comparative methods. The works in question are highly heterogeneous in terms of their form and content, the topics they touch upon, and the methods of dealing with sources and other criteria. However, they share a lot of features that make it possible to attribute them to one genre of local chronicle which developed between the 18th and the mid-19th centuries. The textological analysis demonstrates that none of the works considered was called a chronicle by their authors. They were characterised as chronicles in later epochs. The historians who came into possession of the sources and published them described the documents as chronicles to draw the readers’ attention to the fact that the sources they referred to were ancient and followed the old tradition of chronicle-writing. The majority of works analysed were popular with locals: they were copied and kept in municipal institutions and home libraries. Due to the fact that local print media did not exist in these towns and other forms of communicating information were underdeveloped, the chronicles that circulated around these territories became the main source of historical information. Five out of six works considered in the article were authored by Orthodox clergymen, which testifies to the special role played by the Orthodox clergy in the formation of historical consciousness among the population in the Lower Volga region. In the mid-19th century, the region was going through rapid social and economic development, which helped modernise the sociocultural space of its towns. This, in its turn, conditioned the emergence of newer forms of interpreting the past that were more acceptable to modern academic criteria.</p> Alexander Kleitman Igor Tumentsev ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1063–1077 1063–1077 10.15826/qr.2018.4.346 Castles of the Teutonic Knights in Russia https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.347 <p>The author carries out cultural and historical analysis of the diversity of architectural forms in the cultural heritage of the mediaeval districts of Kaliningrad region, Russia, in the context of the activity and history of the Teutonic Order. Feudal castles played a special role in European society, which makes them an interesting source for research. The architectural and historical typology of castle forms which appeared in the region of Europe in question was based both on common features characteristic of the Western European chivalric tradition and particular features, i. e. local cultural and construction traditions. The latter manifested themselves in the establishment of historical centres of settlements, which were later transformed during the construction activity of the knights of the Teutonic Order. The author aims to synthesise data on the historical diversity of the architectural and artistic forms of Kaliningrad region castles as part of the cultural heritage of the Teutonic Order. It is established that a castle of the Order was a sociocultural space based on the natural environment, social structure, and mental values of the knights of the Teutonic Order. Such mediaeval works of European culture were reflected in the castles of the Order in the 13th–15th centuries, combining common European and local historical and architectural peculiarities: the fortification features and regional cultural differences were preconditioned</p> Yevgeni Kilimnik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1078–1092 1078–1092 10.15826/qr.2018.4.347 The Duke of Richelieu in the Service of Tsar Alexander I and the Restoration: A Mediator between Russia and France https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.348 <p>This paper considers the political biography of the Duke of Richelieu, a prominent figure in Russian and French history. Starting his military career in Russia with participation in the Siege of Izmail, Richelieu returned to the shores of the Black Sea after being invited to Russia by Tsar Alexander I in August 1802. As a friend of Emperor Alexander I, he was appointed governor general of Novorossiya; he proved himself to be a good administrator and contributed to the commercial and cultural flourishing of Odessa which occurred during his rule. When Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, Richelieu was eager to go to war against the “usurper” but was instead fighting the plague epidemic that struck Odessa in the summer of 1812. After the restoration of the Bourbons, Richelieu left Odessa for France, where he went on to become head of the Council</p> Marie-Pierre Rey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1095–1109 1095–1109 10.15826/qr.2018.4.348 The Russians and Russia in the Correspondеnce between Valentin Jamerai-Duval and Anastasia Sokolova (1762–1774) https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.349 <p>This article considers the images of Russian people in the correspondence (1762–1774) between Valentin Jamеrai-Duval, a French self-taught philosopher in Austrian service, and Anastasia Sokolova (De Ribas), a maid of the bedchamber at Catherine II’s court. The publication of 126 letters, carried out in 1784 by the well-known Russian diplomat F. A. Koch, was an important political project aimed at popularising Russia’s achievements during the first period of Catherine II’s reign among a Western European audience. The letters contain detailed factual information on the history, culture, geography, and domestic and foreign policy of the Russian Empire, as well as its economy and religious life. The correspondents focus on the reform activities of Catherine II and the events of the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774. Images of numerous highly educated Russians favourably complement the positive image of the country, overcoming the usual stereotypes. Thus, the publication of Duval and Sokolova’s correspondence fits into the new trend for understanding the image of Russia in Western Europe that developed in an academic context between the 1770s and 1780s. At the same time, the publication of letters from both correspondents, resembling in their content the correspondence between Catherine II and Voltaire, was meant to prepare readers for the forthcoming publication of the latter correspondence and prevent the negative consequences for the empress.</p> Angelina Vacheva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1110–1128 1110–1128 10.15826/qr.2018.4.349 The Question of Serfdom in Russia: Social Dialogue and Communicative Practices of Power (First Quarter of the 19th Century) https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.350 <p>This article puts forward a research model for studying the interaction between power structures and Russian subjects in the first quarter of the 19th century. The starting point of the model is a revision of the structuralist approach. The author considers it important to study “social dialogue” as a history of the communicative practices emerging among Russian subjects, local representatives of power, and high-ranking officials of the imperial administration. In order to reconstruct the channels, content, and results of this “social dialogue”, the author uses two groups of primary sources: texts produced in the process of public communication with an unspecified addressee that created a general intellectual and emotional context for the perception of existing social, economic, and political issues; and texts of public communication with a specified addressee, aimed at official structures of different levels with the purpose of solving certain practical problems. The author compares publications of Russian journals discussing the problem of “slavery” in different countries of the world, archival materials from the Russian State Historical Archive on “the issues connected with peasants’ appeals for emancipation from non-noble masters”, the serf-owners’ complaints about the “illegal” emancipation of peasants without proper compensation, and projects for the abolition of serfdom created on the basis of the generalisation of complaints and petitions. The author distinguishes the two models of social dialogue, i.e. the conflict model and the project model. Taken together, these two models make it possible to trace both the government’s reaction to amendments of existing laws meant to solve conflicts between serfs and their masters and efforts to develop an all-Russian solution for the issue of serfdom.</p> Dmitry Timofeev ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1129–1143 1129–1143 10.15826/qr.2018.4.350 Conceptualising the Notion of “Profit” among the Russian Nobility (Second Half of the 18th – First Half of the 19th Centuries) https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.351 <p>This article considers the formation of the contemporary notion of profit (Rus. прибыль). Contrary to the well-established idea that profitability was the main motive of the economic activity of the nobility, the author argues that “profit” was conceptualised among the nobility as late as the second half of the 18th century, mainly due to the use of forest land. Starting from the middle of the century, Russian forestry acquired unique features that markedly distinguished it from other areas of agricultural production on estates. First, forests were the second most common privately-owned natural resource (following land), which gives the author reason to believe that forestry practices were widespread in large parts of Russia. Secondly, the nobles mainly had to use hired labour for felling trees and transporting timber because this activity not only required skills, but also time: serfs could not be involved on an ongoing basis because it distracted them from agriculture. The combination of all these factors led to the formation of the modern meaning of the concept of “profit” among the nobility. For the purposes of the study, the author refers to a new complex of unpublished archival sources, mainly draft accounting documents, which allows her to analyse the real financial practices of the nobility.</p> Elena Korchmina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1144–1159 1144–1159 10.15826/qr.2018.4.351 What Angela Merkel Should Be Called: Neologisms of German Political Discourse in the Media of Other Countries https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.352 <p>This paper explores features of the new lexical and phraseological units of German political discourse and their function in other languages. German media discourse, reflecting the policy of one of the major European states, generates many new lexemes and idioms. An important component of the neologisms is vocabulary based on politicians’ names. Deonyms are widespread in all European languages; however, their formation and function have certain differences, both morphological and semantic. The article studies the peculiarities of such new words as <em>merkeln</em> and <em>Merkelism</em> in the political discourse in different languages. While the German language is characterised by the use of verb deonyms, they are not characteristic of Slavic languages. In turn, the neologism <em>Merkelism</em> is being actively used by the media of almost all European countries, although its semantics vary. Relevance is the main condition for a new lexical or phraseological unit to enter the active vocabulary of another language, which is demonstrated through the neophraseme <em>Europa der verschiedenen Geschwindigkeiten</em>. The connotational meaning of phraseology in a given language depends on the political situation and linguocultural characteristics.</p> Jan Gregor Elena Tomashkova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1160–1173 1160–1173 10.15826/qr.2018.4.352 The Archetype of the Motherland in Modern Political Discourse (Aleksandr Prokhanov vs Dmitry Bykov) https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.353 <p>This article analyses the transformation of the archetype of the Motherland in opposed mytho-political systems and political discourses of contemporary Russia. It does so with reference to journalistic speeches and articles by Aleksandr Prokhanov and Dmitry Bykov (and satirical poems by the latter). The article demonstrates that the political opponents legitimise/delegitimise and sacralise/desacralise power by choosing a certain aspect of the archetype of the Motherland and reviving the mythology of hierogamy by projecting the archetype of the Father Tsar onto the current political leader. Another effective method of creating the image of Russia and interpreting events is the metaphor of family and gender, which both the writer and the poet use skillfully. The article aims to identify the aspects of the Motherland archetype and to understand the peculiarities characterising the usage of political metaphors for creating the image of the Motherland and their place in the mytho-political systems, relying on methods of mythopoetic and cognitive analysis. The author concludes that in the satirical poems and journalistic speeches of the opposition member Dmitry Bykov, the Motherland is a mother abandoning her children, an alcoholic mother, a mother devouring its children – an Antimother. Of all the gender and family metaphors related to the image of Russia, Bykov chooses antenatal and anticreative metaphors, emphasising, whenever possible, his own masculinity (on the principle of the masculinisation of his own self/his people). However, in the articles and speeches of the conservative Alexander Prokhanov from the early 2000s, the author observes a sacralisation of the Motherland, with the writer emphasising the positive and bright side of the holy image (Holy Russia). However, in his recent journalistic writings, there is a marked preference for the archetype of the Father Tsar, sacralisation of the authorities. and the worship of the state; he uses gender metaphors with a tendency for the masculinisation of one’s own people and the feminisation of others.</p> Yekaterina Postnikova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1174–1187 1174–1187 10.15826/qr.2018.4.353 The Image of the Volga in the Russian Language Tradition https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.354 <p>This article reconstructs the image of the Volga in the Russian language, mostly referring to material from Russian dialects. The author focuses on the derivational and phraseological word family of the word <em>Волга</em> (Volga), i. e. the semantic and word-formative derivatives of the hydronym, as well as idioms and the paremiology based on it. Relying on the results of an ideographic analysis of the material, the author singles out several subject groups containing derivatives of the hydronym <em>Волга</em>, including “geography”, “hydrological characteristics”, “society”, and “material culture”. The author maintains that these denotative groups are unequal, with the sphere of society being the most detailed from the point of view of the lexical units it contains and semantics. In people’s consciousness, the image of the Volga is most closely connected with barge haulers and seasonal work. According to the author, the linguistic data described corroborate the anthropomorphic image of the Volga existing in folklore. The river is portrayed as a cheerful, lively, and smart person (a young girl). As well as the depiction of the Volga, the article puts forward a few motivational interpretations for a number of less clear idioms with components connected with <em>Волга</em>.</p> Yulia Krivoshchapova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1188–1201 1188–1201 10.15826/qr.2018.4.354 On the Pragmatic Conditionality of Folklore Texts: Constructions with the Preposition and Prefix без- https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.355 <p>This article completes a cycle of studies on the genre peculiarities of folklore texts at the lexico-grammatical and word-building levels. It demonstrates that being the smallest meaningful units of text (and for that reason seemingly unnoticeable), even morphemes and grammemes appear in a folklore text only when carrying out tasks conditioned by the basic pragmatics of the genre. The author illustrates this statement referring to the functioning of the prefix and preposition <em>без</em> in different genres of Russian folklore, i. e. sayings, proverbs, riddles, chastushkas, ritual lamentations, charms, spiritual poems, and bylinas. According to statistics, constructions with <em>без</em> are frequent in sayings, proverbs, riddles, charms, and lamentations. In bylinas, their occurrence is moderate, and they are almost never found in chastushkas or spiritual poems. The frequency of the prefix and preposition <em>без</em> in different texts depends on the pragmatic nature of the genre. Proverbs, love charms, and lamentations use negations with <em>без</em> to indicate an unbreakable bond (X does not exist without Y), while riddles and healing spells use it to indicate the alienability of what cannot be alienated (Y exists without X, though X is indispensable). In medical and protective spells, the main function of <em>без</em> is to magically eliminate evil forces. Lamentations, whose main feature is the idea of a loss or a lack of something, employ constructions with <em>без</em> to create a special projection of a world full of deprivation and hardships.</p> Olesya Surikova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1202–1214 1202–1214 10.15826/qr.2018.4.355 Bogoslovsky’s Dramatic Reflection https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.356 <p>This article analyses the <em>Diaries</em> of the outstanding Russian historian Mikhail Bogoslovsky, a professor at Moscow Imperial University. The authors reveal the peculiarities of this unique historical source, largely filling in the gaps and lacunae of the archival materials and documentary publications that contain the official assessment of certain events. Bogoslovsky offers a wide panorama of events and facts, and not only his personal story: one may find an assessment of many of the events of his era, as well as of public authorities, representatives of the imperial administration, deputies of the 4th State Duma, and leaders of political parties. The article analyses Bogoslovsky’s pedagogical activity and substantiates the thesis that among his diverse occupations, scholarly work was of primary importance for the historian. The authors focus on the peculiarities of the historian’s relations with his colleagues and students. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the work on his main study, a multivolume book on the life of Emperor Peter I. The article provides information on the daily life of the historian’s family, which allows the authors to identify how the scholar mastered the new social practices which helped him, like many other city-dwellers, survive in the face of a growing crisis in all spheres of economic and sociocultural life during the period of revolutionary chaos. Between 1916 and 1917, owing to an increase in crisis phenomena, the everyday life of the population of Russia took another turn. In this context, influenced by periodicals, the diaries give an impartial assessment of the ineffective work of the imperial administration, the deputies of the 4th State Duma, and the local authorities. Comparing the past of Russia with its current reality, he makes attempts to predict the future of Russian statehood. The authors conclude that in trying to escape from the dramatic reality of his time, the historian increasingly began to turn to the historical situation of the 18th century.</p> Pyotr Kabytov Yekaterina Barinova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1217–1230 1217–1230 10.15826/qr.2018.4.356 Veliky Novgorod in the Research of Ural University https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.357 <p>This article provides an overview of studies focusing on Veliky Novgorod carried out in Ural Federal University. For the purposes of the study, the authors describe the history of archaeological excavations and the formation of the source base for the study of Veliky Novgorod, a unique centre of the Eastern European Middle Ages; also, the article describes the role the teaching staff and students played in collecting this material throughout almost forty years. This has become possible thanks to a longstanding collaboration between the Department of the History of Russia of Ural Federal University and the Department of Archaeology of Moscow University, the Novgorod State Integrated Museum Reserve, the Institute of Archaeology (RAS, Moscow), and the Institute for the History of Material Culture (St Petersburg), all of which share creative contacts. The article singles out some directions of studies conducted by the university staff and their students, focusing on different aspects connected with Veliky Novgorod. The research covers a wide range of areas, from the studies of archaeological artefacts, the genesis and evolution of the social system and political institutions, the history of Ancient Rus’ musical culture as reflected in Novgorod manuscripts; from the study of Old Russian canon law to the role Veliky Novgorod played in the system of transcontinental trade relations and cultural contacts. Finally, the authors describe the applied character of certain areas of research in the sphere of restoration of mediaeval musical instruments and the development of itineraries for the network of historical and educational tourism in Novgorod and the surrounding territories.</p> Bronislava Ovchinnikova Vera Solovyeva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1233–1245 1233–1245 10.15826/qr.2018.4.357 The Language of Russian Orthodoxy through the Prism of Lexicography https://qr.urfu.ru/ojs/index.php/qr/article/view/qr.358 <p>The <em>Dictionary</em> reviewed has filled a lacuna in Russian lexicography, presenting the vocabulary of Orthodoxy as a natural component of the modern Russian language that functions not only in the religious sphere, but also in the everyday lives of Russians. The analysis of the <em>Dictionary</em> is preceded by a short essay on the lexicographic sources describing the vocabulary of Orthodoxy and on the ideological deformation of the religious subsystem of vocabulary during totalitarianism. The book represents a new genre of lexicographical works defined by the author as an <em>Explanatory Encyclopaedic Dictionary</em>. The dual nature of the <em>Dictionary</em> is manifested both in the vocabulary and in the structure of the dictionary entries. The linguistic component combines interpretation, etymology, and stylistic features, as the object of description is the word as a unit of language. The encyclopaedic focus of the <em>Dictionary</em> is shown in the commentary and illustrations, as the object of interpretation is the referent of the word described. The reviewers carry out an analysis of the vocabulary, including the basic concepts of religious and theological terms, names of representatives of the Celestial and church hierarchy, words of different thematic groups connected with church life, and the lexicon of Christian morals. Additionally, the article describes the principles of representing entry words and the stylistic and semantic connections of lexical units included in the <em>Dictionary</em>. Special attention is paid to the illustrations that supplement and deepen the interpretation of entries, as well as to the author’s commentary, which has undoubted cultural value and contains information of an encyclopaedic nature. The <em>Dictionary</em> has great practical value: while being aimed at a wide secular audience, it may also be useful for a church audience.</p> Aleksander Gadomski Tatiana Itskovich Olga Mikhailovа ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 6 4 1246–1255 1246–1255 10.15826/qr.2018.4.358